Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for December, 2010

The hype of WikiLeaks has been intensified last few weeks as Julain Assange becomes the Osama Bin Laden of the western world.

http://in.news.yahoo.com/wikileaks-cables-detail-torture-detainees-kashmir-20101215-161912-033.html

This above link which gets highlighted on yahoo home page gets huge attention especially by the Assange followers. As I have already noted in my earlier article on WikiLeaks about its farce. Yet, I am forced to write another after seeing this above link on ( WikiLeaks cables details torture on detainees in Kashmir ).

London, Dec 17 (IANS) US diplomats were secretly briefed by staff of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) about the systematic abuse of detainees in Kashmir, according to diplomatic cables released by WikiLeaks.

The dispatches reveal that US diplomats in Delhi were briefed by ICRC in 2005 about the use of electrocution, beatings and sexual humiliation against hundreds of detainees, the Guardian reported Friday.

After reading the above , I question how many ICRC representatives are or perhaps were ever in Kashmir.It surprises me to my astonishment further that , these ICRC staff revealed secretly these incidents to US Embassy in India. If ever someone has ever been to Jammu & Kashmir , will understand the situation there. The Indian media personnel who have the best advantage of covering the news from Kashmir can’t get access to such detention camps in Kashmir, so how on earth ICRC interviewed the detainees who are under the captivity of Indian Army.

Morever, even if these detention camps exist, then these camps are no different from the regular Indian jails or prisons. The hospitality met on the prisoners across India is fairly known to all the Indian citizens and no Indian person would ever want to get to that place.  If Indian Army is detaining such militants, then its our countries internal matter & national security. As these militants are fully trained under ISI – Pakistan and execute their duties as full-fledged terrorists. These militants are also involved in torturing the normal Kashmiri citizens and forcing them into terror activities. Kidnapping , ransom of youngsters and family members to force them to achieve the terror plans are just few of the atrocities met by these militants on the ordinary citizens. The militants also go further to penetrate into other parts of India and spread terror.

One has to understand that Kashmir is under the state of war at all times with these dark figures , with who the WikiLeaks is compassionate. I wonder WikiLeaks is just another American agenda of supporting terror in India. In the state of war even the prisoners of war ( real soldiers ) are treated in a good manner and guess what? these detainees are not soldiers , but real hard-core terrorists. How should they be dealt with?

ICRC should really look into nations & places on earth where their real assistance is required by much needy people and not get involved with political matters which concern the national security of India. Subsequently , the US Embassy should focus on their diplomatic jobs , as it clearly displays that every information from US Embassy is getting leaked. This shows they are not great in their spy stuff. ( lol ).

These militants who go raping and killing people , are they not violating human rights. WikiLeaks cannot demoralise Indian Security forces by declaring that they are violating human rights.

The US-Pak allaince cannot blackmail India with such fake documents that are no concern for the Indian government. India doesn’t need aggression in Kashmir and neither do the Kashmiris living there. The state is always imposed with curfews & bandhs and every Kashmiri has realised the bad intention of Pakistan. Therefore, they too need peace as when they see the situation in India and compare with Pakistan,. any sane human being can decide which side they want to go.

 

Read Full Post »

Catholic scholar Dr. Malachi Martin, formerly a Jesuit professor at Georgetown University and a confidant of Vatican insiders, flatly declared in a recent New York City interview: “Yes, it’s true. Lucifer is enthroned in the Catholic Church.”
      Martin was also interviewed by The Fatima Crusader, a well-known Catholic publication. He again repeated his allegations, and expressed his dismay and distress that the Catholic institution of which he is a part has grown so decadent and morally reprobate since the Vatican II conference of the 60s. The contention that there are Satanists in Rome is “completely correct” said Martin, adding:

    “Anybody who is acquainted with the state of affairs in the Vatican in the last 35 years is well aware that the prince of darkness has and still has his surrogates in the court of St. Peter in Rome.”Blatant Satan worship is now rampant within the Catholic Church. High-ranking churchmen are guilty of this heinous crime against God. According to one reliable source, the smoke of Satan has entered the very sanctuary of St. Peter’s Cathedral in the Vatican. Mind-boggling though it may be, priests and bishops alike are known to have taken contract oaths to serve the devil, signed in their own blood!
          These amazing facts about devil worship inside the Vatican and its subsidiaries have come not from hostile Protestant critics of Roman Catholicism, but from top-ranking Catholic prelates themselves. Evidently, this awful malignancy is so far advanced that Satanism has reached the papacy itself and has seriously affected the rank and file of nuns and priests in the U.S.A. and throughout the globe. Untold numbers of outright Satan worshippers are now masquerading as Catholic clergy while secretly paying homage to Lucifer.

    Blood Oaths and Blasphemous Rituals

    Malachi Martin is a very traditional Catholic. Author of Hostage to the Devil and numerous other books, his acclaimed Keys of This Blood, published some five years ago, was a strong, apologetics volume supporting the papacy of the current Pope, John Paul II. But now, Martin has doubts. He cannot understand why this Pope allows such evil to exist and even prosper within the church.
          It has gotten so bad, Dr. Martin contends, that in one shocking incident, high-ranking churchmen actually took oaths signed with their own blood and participated in “meticulously enacted rituals that blaspheme and devilishly mimic the holy sacrifice of the mass.”
     

     

    Treachery Inside the Sanctuary


    If Dr. Malachi Martin was the only authority sounding the alarm about devil worship in the Catholic Church, the whole affair would simply be dismissed as the outrageous accusations of a single cleric. But as far back as 1976, Pope Paul VI shocked a papal audience by confiding that, “The smoke of Satan has entered the very sanctuary of St. Peter’s Cathedral.” The Pontiff went on to explain that he had knowledge of a midnight hour, Black Satanic Mass having been conducted at the altar of St. Peter’s, on the exact spot where the Pope himself regularly says mass.
     

     

    Secret Involvement Exposed

    Already reeling from Martin’s accusations and stung by the memorable revelations of a previous pontiff, the Catholic hierarchy was further set back on its combined heels in Rome last November. With thousands in attendance at Rome’s Fatima 2000 International Congress on World Peace, a respected Archbishop, Emmanuel Milingo, strode to the podium. The crowd gasped as they heard Milingo solemnly affirm that members of the Catholic Church hierarchy are secretly involved in the darkest kinds of formal Satan worship.
          Archbishop Milingo, an exorcist, is author of a bestselling book exposing the occult, Face to Face With the Devil. In his speech, Milingo called Satan worship the “Third dimension of Evil,” and explained:

      Now, the third dimension (of evil) is the most dangerous. It is subtle and the most terrible–.I could not believe when I discovered this third dimension of evil. The third dimension is people who follow instructions in satanic sects–.
      Now with this third dimension, I’m sorry to say, our church belongs to it. I’m very sorry, I could not understand myself, and even now I don’t understand. But the only consolation I have is that, well, Judas Iscariot was one. Together with Jesus three years, he never changed. Then I understand that the third dimension of evil existed not only now, but it existed even then. Because nothing could change the heart of Judas Iscariot–nothing.

       

       

    Devil Protected by Catholic Authorities

    Archbishop Milingo went on to make an accusation which sent hurricane force shockwaves throughout the Catholic community. According to Milingo, the devil is actually protected by the Catholic Church:

      The devil in the Catholic Church is so protected now that he is like an animal protected by the government; put on a game preserve that outlaws anyone, especially hunters, from trying to capture or kill it. The devil within the Church today is actually protected by certain Church authorities from the official devil hunter in the Church–the exorcist. So much so that the exorcist today is forbidden to attack the devil. The devil is so protected that the one who is the hunter, the exorcist, is forbidden to do his job.

    In a subsequent interview, the courageous archbishop stated: “Certainly, there are priests and bishops alike who are followers of Satan.” When asked whether cardinals or even the Pope himself were guilty of this repulsive heresy, Milingo responded that, because he is an archbishop, he does not feel it is proper for him to name or comment about superior officials. The archbishop’s silence, of course, spoke volumes.

    Catholicism and the Ravages of Freemasonry
    Satan worship apparently has mushroomed in recent years as Catholic cardinals, bishops, and priests have joined the Masonic Lodge in record numbers. Until the papacy of today’s Pope John Paul II, membership by Catholics in any kind of Masonic order was an excommunicable offense. Now, however, it is commonplace. Indeed, in 1980, New York’s Terrance Cooke, one of America’s most powerful Catholic cardinals, addressed a gathering of 3,000 Masons. Cardinal Cooke electrified the assemblage when he said that, as friends, Masons and Catholics should recognize each other.
          Refraining from mentioning the name of Jesus–the name despised by many Masons and prohibited inside their lodges–Cardinal Cooke bowed to Masonry’s worst heresy by remarking, “I know of your firm belief in the Supreme Being, the Great Architect of the Universe, and of the holy writings appropriate to the religion of your members, and I salute you for your loyalty to these ancient values.”
          Cardinal Cooke’s words were obviously well chosen and imbued with hidden meaning. In fact, the Masonic Lodge’s “Supreme Architect of the Universe” is none other than Lucifer, who cloaks himself in Masonic literature with the names of such deities as Zoroaster, Shiva, Abaddon, and in other Masonic pagan-god disguises. As for the “holy writings” of Freemasonry, these have their origins in the Roman mystery religions, in 19th century occultism, and in Egyptianism/Babylonianism. Such are the “ancient values” of the satanic Masonic Lodge.

     

    Satanism in Methodist, Episcopal, and Mormon Churches
    In my special edition audiotape, Satan Worship in the Vatican Exposed, I explore further the overwhelming evidence of devil worship by the Catholic hierarchy. Authoritative quotes and documentation are given. I also tie the aging Pope John Paul II to this horror.
          We must remember, however, that Satanism is not only practiced by Catholic clergy. This wickedness is found in some of today’s Methodist and Charismatic churches, and especially in Episcopal and Anglican churches. Two years ago, the Mormon Church hierarchy even went public, admitting that satanic rituals had been secretly conducted by some church elders.
          Meanwhile, members of the Masonic Lodge, including pastors and denominational leaders, continue to dominate the Southern Baptist Convention.
          Contrary to what some believe, the devil is not a “Catholic.” Indeed, he is remarkably tolerant of all false religion, and he is known to be pleasingly nondenominational in his approach to religion. Satan is proud to be an ecumenical being. “Any faith but Jesus and His Word, the King James Bible,” is the devil’s handy motto.

     

    The Power of Prophecy
    These revelations of devil worship inside churches which claim to be “Christian” should not surprise us. The power of Bible prophecy is thereby made manifest. The books of Daniel and Revelation describe the Antichrist as a man who appears as a lamb but has horns. He ordains amongst his flock men and women who are unrepentant murderers, liars, fornicators, pedophiles and adulterers. Daniel says that the devil’s Antichrist shall speak “dark sentences” and shall worship a god his fathers knew not.
          Thus we understand why Satan worship is so fervently and irreverently practiced in the very seat of Rome, inside the profane temple the popes built–the temple known as St. Peter’s Cathedral, which has the Egyptian sun god obelisk on display in its front courtyard.       Yes, 666 is rising fast. The Pope, his Vatican, and its hierarchy are preparing the way for the corrupt Beast. They, as well as their non-Catholic helpers, are opening a creaking doorway to the Ultimate Evil. May God have mercy on their souls.

    This revealing photo of Catholic Cardinal Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky, of the Ukraine, appeared in the magazine Inside the Vatican (1997), in an article entitled, “The Princes of the Church.”. Observe the cardinal’s unusual staff, with its vile phoenix serpents facing each other and its Maltese Cross at the apex. This same imagery–the dual phoenix serpent–is found on the wall behind the black stone altar inside the sanctuary of Freemasonry’s House of the Temple in Washington, D.C.
     

          In Pergamos, where Revelation says that “Satan’s seat” was, the sun deity was worshipped in the form of “Aesculapius, the man-instructing serpent.” His seed, the son (or Antichrist), was the devil’s spitting image–an incarnation, as depicted in the illustration at right (below) from Hislop’s classic book, The Two Babylons.


          According to Hislop, the mysterious symbol of the dual serpent was brought from Pergamos to Rome, where Satan began to be worshipped by the Pope and the Catholic hierarchy. Satan worship can thus be traced from Babylon, to Pergamos, to Rome.

     

     

Read Full Post »

Jews of Poland

The period of history we are looking at is known as the Renaissance which historians generally date from about 1350 to about 1650. Renaissance means “rebirth.” Rebirth of what? Of knowledge.

File:Reception oh Jews in Poland 1096.JPG

We have now left the Dark Ages dominated by the repressive policies of the Church in Rome and are beginning a time period associated with individual expression, self-consciousness, and worldly experience, and accomplishments in scholarship, literature, science, and the arts.

In the Renaissance, we see some powerful kings emerging in England and in France, while the power of the Church begins to wane. The famous personalities of this period of time are Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Shakespeare, Machiavelli, Petrarch, Rabelais, Descartes, Copernicus, just to name a few.

This is also a time when Jews made their way into Poland. Today we tend to think of Jewish life in Poland as being confined to the shtetl, but that did not happen until the 18th century. We also tend to think of Poland as synonymous with anti-Semitism, pogroms, etc. But during the time of the Renaissance the picture was quite different.

Before we begin the fascinating story of the Jews of Poland, we have to keep in mind the historical pattern that we see constantly in Jewish history. The places where the Jews will do the best are almost always the places where the Jews will suffer the worst in the end. You’d expect there’d be places that would be good for the Jews and other places where Jews would have a rough time. But that’s not what happens.

The best of times and the worst of times tend to happen in the same place. We just saw it in Spain, we’re going to see it now in Poland, we’ll see it later in Germany. It’s one of the great patterns in Jewish history ever since the Jews were invited into Egypt and then enslaved there.

So how did the Jews come to Poland?

A POLISH INVITATION

Poland became Christian very late, only at the turn of the 11th century, and only then did it join the European community of nations (so to speak). After that, it took a couple of hundred years before Poland started to emerge as a nation-state with strong development potential.

If you want to develop your country economically and culturally, who do you need?

You need Jews.

Why were the Jews so necessary? First, they could read and write. Jews were always highly educated as they had to be literate to read and obey the Torah, and general education came along as part of the parcel. Second, Jews were excellent bankers, accountants, and administrators who knew how to keep the economy healthy.

So in 1264, King Boleslav of Poland granted a charter inviting the Jews there. The charter was an amazing document, granting Jews unprecedented rights and privileges. For example, it stated that:

  • “The testimony of the Christian alone may not be admitted in a matter which concerns the money or property of a Jew. In every such incidence there must be the testimony of both a Christian and a Jew. If a Christian injures a Jew in any which way, the accused shall pay a fine to the royal treasury.”
  • “If a Christian desecrates or defiles a Jewish cemetery in any which way, it is our wish that he be punished severely as demanded by law.”
  • “If a Christian should attack a Jew, the Christian shall be punished as required by the laws of this land. We absolutely forbid anyone to accuse the Jews in our domain of using the blood of human beings.”
  • “We affirm that if any Jew cry out in the night as a result of violence done to him, and if his Christian neighbors fail to respond to his cries and do not bring the necessary help, they shall be fined.”
  • “We also affirm that Jews are free to buy and sell all manner of things just as Christians, and if anyone hampers them, he shall pay a fine.”(1)

We are about to begin discussing an excruciating period of Jewish history that is marked by constant and unrelenting Christian persecution.

During this period we will see:

  • the Jews expelled from England (1290)
  • the Jews expelled from France (1306 and 1394)
  • the Jews expelled from Hungary (1349 and 1360)
  • the Jews expelled from German states (1348 and 1498)
  • the Jews expelled from Austria (1421)
  • the Jews expelled from Lithuania (1445 and 1495)
  • the Jews expelled from Spain (1492)
  • the Jews expelled from Portugal (1497)

And that’s only a partial list.

(As often as not, the Jews were expelled and then, when a significant economic decline was noted in their absence, they were re-admitted only to be expelled again. It was the classic “can’t live with them, can’t live without them” philosophy.)

The story of these persecutions really begins around the year 1000the first millennium. It seems that people get nervous about big dates, especially Christians whose Book of Revelations predicts that at the end of a thousand years Satan will be released from prison and then he’s going to wreak havoc on the world.

The approaching millennium led to a religious revival in the Christian world which historians call the “New Piety.” The New Piety focused especially on the historicity of Jesus. Focusing on the life of Jesus meant focusing on his death. And, even though the Christian “New Testament” says that the Romans killed Jesus, the Jews were blamed for wanting him to die.

And so at this time, we see the notion of Jews as “Christ-killers”which first surfaced in the 4th century really growing in popularity.

But that alone does not explain the vehemence of Christian persecutions. To fully understand the issue, we have to look at other, more complex reasons.

Replacement Theology

To start off, the very existence of the Jews was an irritant to many Christians. And this is why:

Christian theology accepts the Hebrew Bible. It does not quarrel with the statements therein that the Jews were a special people chosen by God to receive the Torah and bring holiness into the world. But Christian theology says that the Jews failed in their mission. This is why God sent His “son” (Jesus) to straighten things out, but the Jews refused to recognize him as “god.”

As a result, God abandoned the Jews and replaced them with the “new chosen people”the Christians. (Hence, the Christian segment of the Bible is called the “New Testament” which is Greek for “scripture.”)

By this line of reasoning however, there would no longer be any purpose for Jews in the world. They should disappear, like did so many mightier peoples. But by the first millennium already 1,000 years after the death of Jesus the Jews were still all over the place.

Christian theology had to come up with some sort of answer to this problem and it did. The Jews must have been doomed to wander the earth by God as a “witness people”teste veritatis in Latin. The purpose of a witness people is to survive throughout history to bear witness at the end of days that Jesus is the Messiah, when he appears again for the so-called “Second Coming.”

But the explanations of Christian theology could not remove the sore spot that the presence at times, strong and prosperous presence of the Jews represented. At the heart of the matter was the Christian view of Judaism as a direct competitor for the soul of humanity.

The hostility that the Christians felt toward the Jews can be seen readily from the writings of the early fathers of the Christian Church. (See What Did They Think of the Jews? by Allan Gould, pp. 24-25.)

From John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, we get this:

Jews are the most worthless of men ― they are lecherous, greedy, rapacious ― they are perfidious murderers of Christians, they worship the devil, their religion is a sickness… The Jews are the odious assassins of Christ and for killing god there is no expiation, no indulgence, no pardon. Christians may never cease vengeance. The Jews must live in servitude forever. It is incumbent on all Christians to hate the Jews.

From Gregory of Nyssa, we get more of the same:

Slayers of the lord, murderers of the prophets, adversaries of god, haters of god, men who show contempt for the law, foes of grace, enemies of the father’s faith, advocates of the devil, brood of vipers, slanderers, scoffers, men whose minds are in darkness, leaven of the Pharisees, assembly of demons, sinners, wicked men, stoners and haters of righteousness.

In some places, such calumny incited people to violence.

(We saw in Part 45, for example, how the Crusader mobs devastated the Jewish population of Europe, slaughtering 30%-50% of the Jews living there. Some 10,000 Jews of an estimated population of about 20,000-30,000 were murdered in 1095 as the first Crusade got under way.)

In other places, such calumny bred other forms of persecution.

Money-Lenders

If one were a reasonable Christian listening to one’s Church fathers speak of the Jews, one might quite naturally conclude that such a people had no place in a decent society.

And this is a conclusion that was drawn over time.

Around the first millennium, we see the rise of the Christian trade guilds from which Jews were pointedly excluded. No more Jewish goldsmiths and silversmiths and glass-blowers. Jews were also excluded from owning land, holding office, and from being doctors and lawyers.

Jews were forced to wear a “distinguishing garment”either a badge or a sign or a silly-looking hat which set them apart. This was not only to make them look different but also to humiliate them.

Then, beginning in 1123, when the bishops of the Church undertook a series of meetings called Lateran Councils to decide Church policy, the Jews were assigned a new function in Christian society.

Along with a decree that priests must be celibate, the bishops decided that Christians were not allowed to lend each other money. (This came from a misunderstanding of Biblical commandment that forbids one from charging one’s brother interest when making a loan.)

As for the Jews, the bishops promulgated a doctrine decreeing them servants of Christians, and then assigning to them the degrading task of lending money called usury with which the Christians were forbidden to sully their hands.

The bishops were not stupid. They knew that you have to charge interest to have banking, and you had to have banking to have economic development, otherwise there is no growth and your economy stagnates. Someone had to lend money. And that someone, the bishops decided, would be the Jews.

What happened next is that Jews were not allowed to live in various cities in Europe, unless they supplied a certain number of money-lenders.

However, lending money was a very precarious job. For one, it engendered a lot of animosity. After all, who likes to pay back loans?

And what happened if the local nobleman or bishop decided not to pay you back? He’d accused the Jew of doing something terrible like killing a Christian baby. That way he could renege on his loans, confiscate all Jewish property, and then expel or even kill the Jews.

This happened over and over again.

Some have claimed that it was Jewish money-lending practices that engendered such actions and, indeed, were responsible for a great deal of anti-Semitism. This is a total myth. At that time Jews charged an average interest rate of between 33% and 43% on loans. And while this may seem high by today’s standards, consider that the Lombards, the Christian Italian bankers living under the nose of the Vatican, charged rates as high as 250%. So we see that the Lombard money-lending practices were many times worse and yet no one went around persecuting Lombard bankers.(1)

Persecutions of the Jews, on the other hand, knew no bounds.

Blood Libel

It is next to impossible to explain the accusations that were hurled at the Jews during this time. Jews were persecuted not only for being “Christ-killers” but as “baby-killers.”

The first such accusation better known as a “blood libel”was leveled in 1144 in Norwich, England. There, Jews were charged with kidnapping a Christian baby and draining the baby of blood. The charge became so popular it would sweep, in various forms, through Europe and then spread to other parts of the world.

The most famous of all blood libel legends is that of the ritual murder of the child Hugh of Lincoln, England in 1255. The story was immortalized in a ballad so well-known in England and Scotland that is number 155 in the standard cannon of English and Scottish ballads compiled by Francis James Child in the 19th century. The best-know tale of ritual murder is the Prioress’s Tale, found in Chaucer’s 14th century classic work or early English fiction, Canterbury Tales. One verse of the tale goes like this: (2)

From that time forward these Jews conspired to chase this innocent child from the earth’s face. Down a dark alley-way they found and hired a murderer who owned that secret place; and as the boy passed at his happy pace this cursed Jew grabbed him and held him, slit his little throat and cast him in a pit.

Now why did Jews need blood in Christian opinion? This is a multiple-choice question:

  1. Jews suffered from hemorrhoids as a punishment for killing Jesus and drinking blood was the best cure for hemorrhoids at the time.
  2. All Jewish men menstruate and need a monthly blood transfusion.
  3. Jewish men, when they’re circumcised, lose so much blood because of that surgical procedure that they need to drink Christian babies’ blood.
  4. It’s the chief ingredient in matzah, and therefore prior to every Passover Jews would be requiring a large supply.
  5. All of the above.

What do you think the correct answer is? Shockingly, it’s (e)all of the above.

This is a very important lesson in anti-Semitism. You can say anything about the Jews and people will believe it.

It’s ironic that Jews, who are prohibited by Jewish law of consuming any blood whatsoever (kosher meat is carefully washed and salted to remove all traces of blood) were precisely the people accused of drinking blood.

The blood libel makes even less sense when you consider that in the 13th century the Church adopted the doctrine of transubstantiation. This is a mystical idea which maintains that when the priest says mass over the wafer and wine, these objects mystically change into the body and blood of Jesus. Christians who consume the wafer and drink the wine are said to be mystically eating the flesh of Jesus and drinking his blood.(3)

It’s ironic that the Christian world, while engaged in the ritual of “drinking the blood of Jesus” would accuse the Jews who are forbidden to drink blood of this totally fabricated hideous crime.

But then the accusations got even more wild.

Starting in Switzerland and Germany in the 13th century, Jews were accused of kidnapping communion wafers from churches. Why would the Jews do this in Christian view?

To torture it.

Medieval documents tell stories describing how a Jew (usually called always called Abraham) steals a wafer from a church, sticks a knife in it, and blood starts pouring out. And then he cuts it up into pieces and sends it to different Jews who all torture it.

This would be funny, if not for a fact that thousands of Jews were slaughtered as a result of such stories. For example, the entire Jewish community of Berlitz, near Berlin in Germany, was all burned alive based on the accusation of torturing a wafer!

(To read more about this subject see The Devil and the Jew by Joshua Trachtenburg or “Why the Jews?” by Dennis Prager and Joseph Telushkin.)

Jew Taxes

Throughout this time, the Jews were physically marginalized, beaten, burned, raped. And they were economically marginalized, pillaged, robbed, taxed nearly to death. Indeed, their money was one of the reasons they were tolerated at all. Jews were a good source of income to the crown. They were specially taxed with special punitive “Jew taxes.”

We will see later in Germany that 38 special taxes were imposed on the Jews. There was a tax to be born, a tax to die, a tax to wear a kippah, a tax to be married, a tax to be circumcised, a tax to buy Shabbat candles, a tax to exempt you from the German army in which you were not allowed to serve anyway because you were a Jew.

And what would happen eventually, once Jews were drained of their money they would be expelled. In 1182 King Philip II of France, out of the need to acquire some “quick and easy” money, expelled the Jews of France and confiscated all their property. The lure of future Jewish tax revenue caused him to rethink his policy and invite the Jews back to France in 1198.

This is also what happened in England where heavy taxation of the Jewish population of about 5,000 people supplied the crown with almost 20% of all of its income.

In 1290, on the 9th day of Av, which is the same day that the Temple in Jerusalem was twice destroyed, and which is therefore the worst day in Jewish history – drained of their wealth by a crushing taxation ― the Jews were expelled from England and not permitted to return for almost four centuries. King Edward I declared all debts owed to the Jews canceled and that the principal (but not the interest) be paid directly to him. As the Edict of Expulsion stated:

… therefore, we in, in requital of their crimes and for the honor of the Crucified, have banished them from our realm as traitors. We… do hereby make totally null and void all penalties and usuries and whatsoever else… may be claimed on account of Jewry… pay the amount to us at such convenient times as may be determined by you. (4)

Other countries would soon follow suit, but first would come another twist in the persecution of the Jews.

We saw previously that Jews

would be brought in as money-lenders (being excluded from other professions), then when a bishop or nobleman wanted his debt annulled, he brought a “blood libel” against the Jews and had them expelled or killed. King Boleslav boldly promised the Jews that this would not happen in Poland.

Jews did not immediately flock into Poland, though some did settle there to test the waters. But when other countries started expelling Jews — England being the first in 13th century, Germany in the 14th and Italy and Portugal being the more recent in the 15th century (as we saw in Parts 46 and 48) — Poland became an attractive destination point.

Then in 1569, Poland unified with Lithuania, and as a result expanded its borders to the east. What we know as the Ukraine today and some of Belorussia became vassal lands of Poland which was still a semi-feudal country. These lands needed to be managed and job openings in administration (at which Jews excelled) sprung up everywhere. Quite often Jews would lease tracts of land from the Polish nobility thus making them the middle men in the feudal economic structure of Eastern Europe.

Another Polish king, Sigismund II Augustus, issued another invitation. Here is an excerpt from his edict, granting the Jews permission to open a yeshiva at Lublin, dated August 23, 1567:

“As a result of the efforts of our advisors and in keeping with the request of the Jews of Lublin we do hereby grant permission to erect a yeshiva and to outfit said yeshiva with all that is required to advance learning. All the learned men and rabbis of Lublin shall come together for among their number they shall choose one to serve as the head of the yeshiva. Let their choice be a man who will magnify Torah and bring it glory.”(2)

GOLDEN AGE OF POLISH JEWRY

In Poland, in the early 16th century, the Jews were allowed to have their own governing body called the Va’ad Arba Artzot-The Council of the Four Lands, which was composed of various rabbis from the four major Polish provinces (Great Poland, Little Poland, Volhynia and Polodia) who oversaw the affairs of the Jews in Eastern Europe. The Poles did not interfere with Jewish life and scholarship flourished.

Some important personalities of this period, which a student of Jewish history should remember, were:

  • Rabbi Moshe Isserles (1525-1572), from Krakow, also known as the Rema. After the Sephardi rabbi Joseph Karo wrote the Shulchan Aruch, the code of Jewish Law, Rabbi Isserles annotated it to fill in the rabbinic decisions from Eastern Europe. His commentary was, and continues to be, critically important in daily Jewish life.
  • Rabbi Ya’akov Pollack (1455-1530), from Krakow. He opened the first yeshivah in Poland and was later named the chief rabbi of Poland. He developed a method of learning Talmud called pilpul, meaning “fine distinctions.” This was a type of dialectical reasoning that became very popular, whereby contradictory facts or ideas were systematically weighed with a view to the resolution of their real or apparent contradictions.
  • Rabbi Yehudah Loewe, (1526-1609), not from Poland but important to Eastern European Jewry. He was known as the Maharal of Prague and was one of the great mystical scholars of his time. His name has also been associated with the famous Golem of Prague legend (The Golem was a Frankenstein-like being created by the Maharal to protect the Jews of Prague) although the legend has been shown to be a later fabrication.

POPULATION BOOM

Along with the growth in Torah scholarship there was growth in population. In 1500 there were about 50,000 Jews living in Poland. By 1650 there were 500,000 Jews. This means that by the mid 17th at least 30% or more of the Jewish population of the world was living in Poland!

Where did these Jews settle within Poland?

Jews of the Diaspora were generally urban people as they were historically not allowed to own land in most of the places they lived. However, they also created their own farm communities called shtetls (Yiddish for “small town). Although we tend to think of the shtetl today as a poor farming village (like in Fiddler on the Roof), during the Golden Age of Polish Jewry, many of these communities were actually quite prosperous. And there were thousands of them.

The Jews in these independent communities spoke their own language called Yiddish. Original Yiddish was written in Hebrew letters and was a mixture of Hebrew, Slavic, and German. (Note that Yiddish underwent constant development and “modern” Yiddish is not like the “old” Yiddish which first appeared in the 13th century, nor “middle” Yiddish of this period of time.)

Overall, the Jews did well, but working alongside Polish and Ukrainian Christians (who thought Jews killed Jesus) had its downside.

There were several instances of Christian rioting against Jews. For example, in 1399 in Poznan, a rabbi and 13 elders were accused of stealing Church property and they were tortured and burnt at the stake. (The Poles must have forgot the king’s edict.)

Another problem was that Jews worked as administrators and tax collectors for Polish feudal lords. This did not make them popular among the local folk, who needed little encouragement to unleash their anti-Semitic rage.

This was especially true in places like the Ukraine, where the Catholic Poles were viewed as an occupying power in an Eastern Orthodox land, and the Jews — being representatives of the occupation forces — were the easiest to resent.

And while the Polish nobility might have needed the Jews, the common Poles didn’t. There were instances when the Polish soldiers would purposely leave town, abandoning the Jews to the mercy (or lack thereof) of the Ukrainians. This happened, for example, in 1648 in the city of Tulchin. The Polish soldiers made a deal with the Cossacks and left town. The Jews defended the city by themselves until it fell and they were all slaughtered.

POGROMS

When the Ukrainians decided to throw the Poles out of their land, a full-scale massacres of Jews began.

The year 1635 saw the first big explosion of violence in Ukraine against Poles and Jews. But this attempt at the revolution was crushed. It returned with new vigor thirteen years later.

This second rebellion, in 1648, which succeeded in freeing a large part of the Ukraine from Polish rule, was led by a Ukrainian Cossack named Bogdan Chmielnicki. In large measure it was directed at the Jews.

Chmielnicki was one of the biggest anti-Semites in human history, on par with Hitler. His aim was genocide and his forces murdered an estimated 100,000 Jews in the most horrendous ways:

Here is one description (from Yeven Mezulah, pp. 31-32):

“Some of them [the Jews] had their skins flayed off them and their flesh was flung to the dogs. The hands and feet of others were cut off and they [their bodies] were flung onto the roadway where carts ran over them and they were trodden underfoot by horse … And many were buried alive. Children were slaughtered at their mother’s bosoms and many children were torn apart like fish. They ripped up the bellies of pregnant women, took out the unborn children, and flung them in their faces. They tore open the bellies of some of them and placed a living cat within the belly and they left them alive thus, first cutting off their hands so that they should not be able to take the living cat out of the belly … and there was never an unnatural death in the world that they did not inflict upon them.”

Here is another account from a Luthuanian Rabbi Shabbetai ben Meir HaCohen (1621-1662) also known as the Shach, who survived this time:

“On the same day 1,500 people were killed in the city of Human in Russia on the Sabbath. The nobles [Cossacks] with whom the wicked mob had again made an alliance chased all the Jews from the city into the fields and vineyards where the villains surrounded them in a circle, stripped them to their skin and ordered them to lie on the ground. The villains spoke to the Jews with friendly and consoling words: ‘Why do you want to be killed, strangled and slaughtered like an offering to your God Who poured out His anger upon you without mercy? Would it not be safer for you to worship our gods, our images and crosses and we would form one people which would unite together.’ “But the holy and faithful people who so often allowed themselves to be murdered for the sake of the Lord, raised their voices together in almighty in Heaven and cried: ‘Hear of Israel the Lord our God, the Holy One and the King of the Universe, we have been murdered for Thy sake so often already. O Lord God of Israel let us remain faithful to Thee.’ Afterward they recited the confession of sins and said: ‘We are guilty and thus recognize the Divine judgment.’ Now the villains turned upon them and there was not one of them who did not fall victim.”

It’s no wonder when Jews hear the word Cossack they break out in a sweat. These people killed 100,000 Jews and destroyed 300 Jewish communities in the most brutal way one could imagine.

Yet to this day Chmielnicki is considered a nationalist hero in the Ukraine, where they regard him as a kind of “George Washington.” In Kiev there is a big statue in the square erected in his honor.

So this is how, in 1648-1649, the Golden Age of Polish Jewry came crashing down.

These pogroms took place in Eastern Poland, and the Jews in other parts remained there. Poland continued for many years to be the center of the Ashkenazi Jewish world as we shall see in future installments.

However, before we cover that period of time, we will backtrack a bit to talk about the Protestant Reformation which also took place during the Renaissance.


1)Alexis P. Rubin ed., Scattered Among the Nations-Documents Affecting Jewish History 49 to 1975. (Jason Aronson, 1993), pp 87-8.
2) Alexis P. Rubin ed., Scattered Among the Nations-Documents Affecting Jewish History 49 to 1975. (Jason Aronson, 1993), pp 89-90.


Read Full Post »

meRrY ChRisTmas biTchEzz !!

Diabolical: Of, or pertaining to, the Devil, demoniacal, fiendish


Paradox: A statement that is self-contradictory or false

Christmas is purported to be a celebration honoring the birth of the Lord Jesus Christ. By simply and honestly examining the history, the scriptures and the actual practices of Christmas, it may be easily seen that it is truly a work of Satan foisted on an unsuspecting and willingly gullible humanity.


History of Christmas …
where did it originate?

The Judean shepherds would not have been in the fields at the 25th of December, as they were at the birth of the Lord Jesus Christ (Luke 2:8), due to the cold weather in that area at that time of the year. 1 Nor is it likely that Caesar would have required his subjects to travel to their home towns in the winter to be taxed as he did just before the birth of the Lord Jesus (Luke 2:1-3).

Nowhere in the word of God do we find anyone commemorating the birthday of the Lord Jesus, nor do we find any command to do so. Since God Almighty has told us that within the pages of His written word may be found all He would have us do to be perfect (mature) Christians before Him, and Christmas is not found there, it must not be a good work in the eyes of God.

II Timothy 3:16-17
All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.

Obviously if the celebration of Christmas did not originate with God and the Bible, we will have to look to secular history for its origin. Prior to the celebration of Christmas, December 25th was celebrated as the Natalis Solis Invicti, the birthday of the Unconquerable Sun. 1 The worship of this pagan deity, known by different names in different lands, penetrated the Roman world in the first century B.C.. Under Roman Catholicism, the celebration of the birthday of the Sun was adopted 2 and changed to supposedly celebrate the birthday of the Son of God, retaining many of the pagan customs and festivities. 3 Some of the earliest settlers of the American colonies, the Puritans, outlawed the celebration of Christmas “because there was no biblical sanction” 4 for such an observance.


Origin of Christmas Customs

“Yuletide”

This common terminology for the Christmas season 5 has its origin deeply rooted in paganism far before the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ. In paganism, the mother of the sun god and great mediatorial divinity, was said to have been mystically turned into a tree and in this condition gave birth to her son.

The birth day associated with December 25th was really a reincarnation of her son. He had been killed and was miraculously raised on December 25th. Thus the pagans would cast a “yule (child) log” on the fire the evening of December 24th. On the next morning, the reincarnated tree would appear. 6

“Christmas Tree”

This custom of the Christmas season was common in pagan Rome and Egypt. In Egypt they used a palm tree and in Rome a fir tree. See above for the significance of the tree on the morning of December 25th in the pagan festivals. 6 It may be that the reference to the tree in Jeremiah 10 had its roots in this pagan celebration.

“Candles”

Lighted candles are foreign to the worship of God in the church of the New Testament scriptures. Yet, they too had their place in the worship of the sun god of paganism 6 and in Christmas today.

“Santa Claus”

The origin of Santa Claus, or St. Nicholas, is well known. He was a Roman Catholic bishop in Asia Minor in the first half of the fourth century. 7 Various legends of his generosity are reported, especially toward children whom he supposedly would question to see if they had studied their catechism and behaved well before giving them treats. His bishop’s robe, no doubt, evolved into the modern day red uniform of Santa Claus. 8 (The diabolical affect of this “harmless” fantasy of childhood will be considered later.)

“Mistletoe”

Among the pre-Christian Druidic superstitions, derived from ancient Babylon, was the legend of the mistletoe. It was regarded as a divine branch which came down from heaven and grafted itself into an earthly tree. Thus the mistletoe became a token of reconciliation, the kiss being a symbol of pardon. 9

At one time Babylon was the center of the civilized world and the origin of all paganism. As such it corrupted the truth of God through the “mysteries” of its religion and thus debased, carnalized and materialized it.


Christ-mass

In the Roman Catholic mass, the following anti-biblical, anti-Christ events are purported to take place:

“Unbloody Sacrifice”

“The mass is the unbloody renewal of the sacrifice of Christ on Calvary’s cross…Christ, through the ministry of the Roman Catholic priest, offers Himself to God in an unbloody manner under the appearances of bread and wine.” 10 (Christ is thus crucified afresh, obviously indicating His death on Calvary was insufficient.) “The mass is the same sacrifice as the sacrifice of the cross because the Victim is the same. The purpose of the mass is, among other things, to satisfy the justice of God for the sins committed against Him.” 11

“When the priest pronounces the tremendous words of consecration, he reaches up into the heavens and brings Christ down from His throne, and places Him upon the (Roman Catholic) altar to be offered up again as the victim for the sins of man…Christ became incarnate a single time, the priest brings Christ down from heaven and renders Him present on the (Roman Catholic) altar as the eternal Victim for the sins of man-not once but a thousand times! The priest speaks and lo! Christ, the eternal, omnipotent God, bows His head in humble obedience to the priest’s command…No wonder that the name which spiritual writers are especially fond of applying to the priest is that of ‘altar Christus.’ For the priest is and should be another Christ.” 12

To those who know the Savior and Lord of the Bible, Jesus Christ, the above quotations from official Roman Catholic publications are at once sickening and outrageous! Note the following from the word of God.

Hebrews 9:22
And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission.

Hebrews 9:24-28
For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment: So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.

Hebrews 10:5-18
Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me: In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure. Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me,) to do thy will, O God. Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein; which are offered by the law; Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second. By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins: But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God; From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool. For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. Whereof the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that he had said before, This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I write them; And their sins and iniquities will I remember no more. Now where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin.

The diabolical paradox

The celebration of Christmas is purported to be in commemoration of the birth of Jesus Christ. In the mass celebrating His birth, the Roman Catholics claim to call Him down from His heavenly glory and crucify Him again, the same as on Calvary. This means they celebrate His birth by killing Him!!!

Shall we who know the Christ of the Bible follow the leading of these “other Christs” as they claim to accomplish such a terrible feat. Shall we to the tune of clinking glasses of alcohol shout “Merry Christ-Mass” or merry crucifixion of Christ again and again and again and again with those who do not love the Saviour! Shall we join with them in calling this unspeakable ungodliness “Christian” and make it the apex of the “Christian” holidays. If this is not a demoniacal contradiction then what is it?!!!

Can you not hear the similarity of the gleeful shouting of the two crowds? Modern day revelers, willfully ignorant of the grand Gift of the Son of God for their sins are shouting “Merry Christmas, Merry Christmas!” While the Christ rejecting Jews at the cross shouted “Crucify Him, Crucify Him.” They are the same!!! Surely Satan must roll with laughter at the spectacle of some of God’s true children blindly joining with his ungodly followers to demean, disgrace and defame the Lord of glory!


The Gospel According to Saint Nicholas

The Bible clearly teaches the following gospel, or good news, regarding the way of salvation and forgiveness of sins:

Titus 3:5
Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;

Ephesians 2:8-9
For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: [it is] the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast.

Romans 4:5-8
But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, Saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin.

Now, as with the false doctrines of Roman Catholicism, let’s compare the word of God with the words of man as ascribed to Santa Claus. “Santa Claus is Coming to Town” (A well known and popular Christmas song).

“He sees you when you’re sleeping
He knows when you’re awake
He knows whether you’ve been good or bad
So be good for goodness sake!

You’d better not cry, you’d better not pout.
You’d better not sigh, you’d better watch out.
Santa Claus is coming to town.”

All are aware of the myth regarding Santa Clause. From his unseen north pole headquarters he is preparing gifts as he miraculously keeps records on the behavior of boys and girls the world over. Once a year he visits their homes on the 25th of December to deliver toys and treats to boys and girls who have earned them by their good works. This is diabolically opposed to the true gospel of salvation and forgiveness of sins without works! In addition, although Santa is supposed to fill the stockings of bad little boys and girls with ashes and leave them no presents, there is never such a child! This only teaches lies and hypocrisy to the minds of little children. It teaches that regardless of what is taught, all will really be rewarded in the end. This is NOT true!

John 14:6
Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.

John 3:7
Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.

John 8:24
I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins.

Acts 4:12
Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

And finally, when the child reaches mid grammar school they discover their parents have been lying to them (while at the same time telling their children not to lie!). The children learn there really is no Santa Claus. He is a myth. This may cause a very serious difficulty when the child is told about the Son of God Who really does know their every thought and deed and to Whom they one day will give an account. The child may fear being deceived again and may find it hard to readily believe their parents about this One, to the damning of their souls. (See Psalms 106:24-40)


The Christ of Christmas is a Dummy

The baby Jesus of Christmas is a helpless infant either lying in a manger or held in his mother’s arms. He does not speak. Like a dumb pagan idol, he simply lies there content to be placed wherever man may choose, accomplishing absolutely nothing. At the first advent of the real Christ the angels were commissioned to truthfully proclaim, “Peace on earth, good will toward men.” They are no longer commissioned to speak thus to a world which has rejected God’s offer of peace by nailing the “Prince of Peace” to a cross. To sing such songs now makes the christ of Christmas a powerless fraud! Meanwhile, the man size Santa reaps credit for giving sparkling delights to young and old alike, at least in the minds of children.


“and, whatsoever ye do in word or deed …”

One of the earmarks of idolatry is that the “worshipers” tell their god what to do. They decide what pleases him. Their god’s mouth is silent, like the christ of Christmas. However, the true child of God who really does want to please His Saviour and LORD is enjoined to obey this command:

Colossians 3:17
And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, [do] all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him.

Can such a child of God honestly join with the world in a non-biblical celebration which is characterized by alcoholism, sexual license and much wasting of finances on unneeded luxuries, and believe he is doing so “in the name of the Lord Jesus?” Remember, He is and was “holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners (Heb 7:26).” What does it mean to “take the name of the Lord in vain?”


God’s Revelation warning

The last book of the Bible, the book of Revelation, speaks of “Mystery Babylon.” This will be the final religious system of the world before God returns in glory, not to “humbly bow His head” and take His place on the cross of Calvary again, but to take vengeance on them that know not God!

2 Thessalonians 1:8
In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ:

The adherents to this anti-Christ final form of apostate Christendom will make the world “drunk,” but not with wine. They will be drunk with the intoxication of human reasoning, sensual reveling and the blood of the true followers of Jesus Christ!

REV 17:1-3
And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters: With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet colored beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.

In verse 9, the 7 heads are revealed to be 7 hills (the city of Rome!). We are told in verse 12, the 10 horns are ten kings (perhaps some form of the European Common Market). In verse 18, the woman is revealed to be the great city (Rome) which will be destroyed by Christ.

With these clear identifications of the religious system which will be prevalent in the last days being “Mystery Babylon” and the clear identification of the current Christmas celebration finding its roots in ancient Babylon, what should the response of the God fearing true child of God be but to heed God’s command!

2 Corinthians 6:17-7:1
Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

1 Robert J. Myers, CELEBRATIONS (Doubleday and Co., Garden City, N.Y.), p. 309
2 Tertullian, a writer in 230AD lamented the inconsistency of supposed disciples of Christ who willingly compromised with paganism, while the heathen had stricter fidelity to their superstitions. “Oh, how much more faithful are the heathen to their religion,” he said, “who take care to adopt no solemnity from the Christians.” See Alexander Hislop, THE TWO BABYLONS, Loizeaux Bros., Neptune, N.J., 1959, p. 93.
3 Ibid, p. 310
4 Robert J. Myers, CELEBRATIONS (Doubleday and Co., Garden City, N.Y.), p. 312
5 WEBSTER’S NEW COLLEGE DICTIONARY, p. 994
6 Alexander Hislop, THE TWO BABYLONS, Loizeaux Bros., Neptune, N.J., 1959, p. 94 and 97
7 Robert J. Myers, CELEBRATIONS (Doubleday and Co., Garden City, N.Y.), p. 318
8 See illustration of St. Nicholas attired in a mixture of Roman vestments and robe in THE BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE, Grolier Inc. N.Y., 1962, p. 922
9 Alexander Hislop, THE TWO BABYLONS, Loizeaux Bros., Neptune, N.J., 1959, p. 9
10 Rev. John A. O’Brien, UNDERSTANDING THE CATHOLIC FAITH, Ave Maria Press, Nortre Dame, Ind, 1955, p. 210
11 Ibid, p. 212
12 Rev. John A. O’brien, FAITH OF MILLIONS, Our Sunday Visitor, Huntington, Ind., 1938, pp. 243-244

Read Full Post »